The territory of modern Uzbekistan is one of the centers of origin and development of human civilization and has a nearly 3,000-year history of statehood. Archaeological finds in the territories of Selengur, Kulbulak and Teshiktash monuments prove that the first human settlements on the territory of Uzbekistan were founded hundreds of thousands of years ago.
The emergence of ancient agrocultures in Central Asia dates back to 3-2 millennium BC. In the second half of the 3 – the first half of 2nd millennium BC – in the upper reaches of the Amu Darya already existed settlements, which participated in the development and trade of Badakhshan lapis lazuli and had connection with the Harappan civilization in India. During the second millennium BC – Through Central Asia and adjacent steppe there was migration to the south (India), Southeast (Media and Persia), East (East Turkestan – Tochars) Indo-Iranian (Aryan) tribes.
The group of eastern Iranian tribes settled in jases in the territory of Central Asia. Bones of domestic animals, wheat and barley and stone graters were discovered in the ancient settlement of farmers in the lake Zamanbaba Zarafshan River Basin. The Eneolithic and Bronze Age area of over 90 hectares was found near Pendjikent’s Sarazm village settlement of farmers. Ancient agricultural settlements discovered in the valley Surhandarya – settlements Sapallitepa and Djarkutan.
Archaeological sites of the Bronze Age in the territory of Khorezm were called Tazabagyabsky farming culture. Settlement of farmers Kokcha, Kavat-3 and others were founded in the middle of the 2nd millennium. There are traces of ancient canals. At the beginning of the 1st millennium BC Khorezm formed Amirabad culture with advanced irrigation techniques. Gradually the population of Ferghana Valley moves to a sedentary lifestyle and engage in agriculture. Chust agricultural culture in the Ferghana Valley dates fr om the end of 2 – start of the 1st millennium BC. Such cities as Samarkand, Merv, Er-Kurgan, Ahsiket, Khiva were founded in the first millennium. This is the birth time of the Zoroastrian “Avesta” and the heroic epic.
The oldest state association of Central Asia is ancient Bactrian kingdom (written sources called it Bahdi in “Avesta”, Baktrish in Behistun inscriptions, Bactriana – by ancient authors), which had ties with Assyria, New Babylon, the Medes, Indian states. According to ancient historians, during the hegemony of Assyria, in the 9-7 centuries BC “Assyrian campaign” was held to Bactria to establish control over lapis lazuli. According to Ctesias of Cnidus, who lived at the court of Artaxerxes II (404-358), as early as the 8th century BC there was a large Bactrian kingdom, which was attacked by Assyrian troops led by King Nin – the husband of the legendary Semiramida and even became part of Assyria. One of the documents states that the king Ashurbanipal calls for help fr om troops fr om Bactria and Sogdiana. According to Ctesias, during the war of Media and Assyria bactrians first acted as allies of the Assyrians, and then switches over to the Medes.
In 7-6 centuries BC the ancient Bactrian kingdom territory covered valleys of Surkhan, Kashkadarya and Zarafshan, included Margiana and Sogdiana. Products of Bactrian masters of gold, stone and bronze gained fame in China, Persia and Europe. The largest cities located on site Kyzyltepa, Er-Kurgan, Uzunkir and Afrasiab. The time traveler fr om afar would see Bactrian city silhouette – a powerful citadel towering over adobe dwellings, craft workshops and outbuildings. Quintus Curtius Rufus wrote: “Nature of Bactria is rich and diverse. In some places, trees and vineyards give juicy fruits in abundance, rich soil irrigated by numerous sources. Where the soil is soft, bread is sawn, and the rest are left as pasture land”. The main occupation of the population was irrigated agriculture. An important role in society played a craft and trade.
Ancient northern trade routes fr om the region were controlled by Khorezm, referred to as Hvarizam in “Avesta”, Hvarazmish – in Behistun scripts, Horasm – in the writings of Arrian and Strabo. Ancient culture of Khorezm, destroyed during the Arab invasion in the 8th century, consisted of nearly two thousand years. Khorezm was the holy land “ayran vaychah” of Avesta – the center of the ancient cults for the entire region. State associations already existed on the territory of Khorezm in the 7-6 centuries BC.
Archaeological evidence suggests that in the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC in this region there was a powerful irrigation network, fed fr om the Amu Darya. In the middle of the 6th century BC Khorezm was conquered by the Persians, who took gems, pottery, jewelery and craftsmen fr om Khorezm. Top builders went to build the royal palaces.
In the construction of the palace of Darius I at Susa it is reported that dark blue gems fr om Khorezm were used. In 5-4 centuries BC Khorezm seeks independence fr om the Persians. Fr om the 4-3 centuries BC there was a Kharezmian writing, the largest religious and administrative center, the royal residence – Toprak-kala, the ancient mausoleum, temple and observatory – Coy Krylgan-Kala existed. Greek sources say that winter 329-328 BC Kharizmian king Farisman concluded a peace treaty with Alexander the Great.
In 334 B.C., Alexander began marching to Asia. Having conquered the Minor Asia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, and Iran Alexander, entered the territory of Central Asia in spring 329, crossing Hindukush Mountains. Bess, the Satrap of Bactria and Sogd, who had accepted the title of King and name of Artakserks, left Bactria and ran to the other side of Amudarya, territory of Sogdiana, after he had known that Alexander had come near. Alexander crossed Amudarya surreptitiously. Bess could not avoid him because at that time his recent supporters – Spitamen and Datafern – imprisoned him. They sent their messengers to Alexander with offer to send his force to capture Bess. In Nautak (north-western part of Kashkadarya Valley) Alexander conquered several fortresses. Having left his garrison in Marakand, he took a tour to the Land of Saks, Syrdarya. On their way to Marakand, the Macedonians had faced tough resistance of local population – the Usturshan highlanders. Alexander was hardly wounded.
The “riverside barbarians” began to revolt fr om back with defeating the Macedonian garrisons. At the same time, Sogdians led by Spitamen began to revolt. The Sogdians adjoined Baktrians. Spitamen had stood openly against Alexander and halted the Macedonian garrison in Marakand. Over the short period of time, on the bank of Syrdarya, the Macedonians built their fortress of Alexandria Distant (Alexandria Eskhata). Alexander hurriedly accomplished peace with Saks and threw his basic forces against Spitamen. The regular retaliatory actions of Greek-Macedonian armies in the territory of Sogd fr om autumn 329 till the same period in 328 did not bring results, which Alexander expected. After two years of wearisome and unsuccessful struggle he changed his tactics and went for rapprochement with local elites. Kwint Kursye Roof writes: “He ordered to give cities and lands of those who persisted in insubordination to those barbarians, who have obeyed”. As a result, Alexander could involve a significant number of local dynasties and formed military contingencies from Sogdians and Baktrians in his campaign. In autumn 328 the decisive battle between Alexander and Spitamen took place, in which Spitamen had lost and ran to desert, wh ere his recent allies executed him. Having conquered the mountain fortresses of Horien and Oxiart in Gissar mountains, Alexander married the daughter of Oxiart – Roxanne, thus related with local elite. Having appointed the king of Sogd, Oropiya, one of the representatives of Sogdian elite, who took sides with Alexander, he finished the conquest of Central Asia. Crossing through Amudarya, in the very summer of 327, he passed through Hindukush and began his famous Indian campaign.
After the death of Spitamen and the consensus with Sogdian-Baktrian crest in 327 BC, Central Asia had become a part of the Great Empire of the Alexander the Great. The military groups of local elite were included in his army. In 323 BC, when the message about Alexander’s death had reached Central Asia, the Greek settlers in Sogd and Bactria gathered group of 20,000 infantrymen and 3,000 cavalrymen, intending to return home. The commander Perdikka, Alexander’s comrade-in-arms, was sent to stop them. He managed to disarm and interrupt the runners. A Sogdian satrap from local grandees, who sympathized with Macedonian retreat, was displaced with Macedonian Phillip, ruling for some time two satrapies – Sogdiana and Bactria. After 315 BC, the Greeks and Macedonians replaced all the appointed local satraps, with exception of Oxiart (Alexander’s father-in-law) and Iranian Atropat (Perdikk’s father-in-law).
In 312 Selevk, one of the commanders of Alexander, secured Babylon. Soon, he expanded his possessions up to Syrdarya and Ind, and his son – Antioch 1 Soter (born from a marriage of Selevk and Apama, who was Spitamen’s daughter) had possessed even more Asian territories, which belonged to Alexander. In Central Asia, only one satrapy, which included Sogdiana and Bactria with Margiana, was formed. Khorezm did not belong to Selevkids. During the period of Achaemenids and Alexander, it kept its independence. Selevk and Antioch paid much attention in strengthening their position in Central Asia. The fortresses and cities, settled by Greeks, had been built actively. The historical tradition imputes building of 75 new cities to Selevk. In keeping in line with Pleniy, Antiochia behind Yaksart was one of the most distant cities. Supposedly, it was situated in the area of modern Tashkent (Kanka town) or the Ferghana Valley. Till the sixties of 3rd century B.C., in Bactras, there was a selevkian mint, which issued mainly large nominal gold and silver coins. From the beginning of Selevkian Antioch II (261-247 BC) governance, Diodod, his strap in Bactria, issued coins of Selevkian sample, which witnesses of relative autonomy. Bactria, Sogdiana and other areas of Central Asia kept living with their economic life, significantly differing from the western regions of Selevkian kingdom.
In 256 B.C. Parphia, Bactria and Sogdiana separated from Selevkides. In response to this, the Arshakids captured power in Parphia. Sogdiana went under Bactria. In 230 B.C. Sogdiana’s satrap (leader) Evtidem overthrew Diodot’s descendent. There was a constant struggle between Greece-Bactrian kingdom over the possession of the trading roads. During 208-209 B.C. Selevkian king Antioch III the Great went on eastern crusade for re-establishment of the past powerful orb of Selevkids. Delivering defeat on Parphs, he has raged fierce attacks against Greece-Bactrian kingdom. As Evtidem’s troops suffered much and Antioch besieged capital town of Baktri. A siege lingered for two years. Fighting for Bactri, Evditem cut peace agreement with Antioch, and left all his elephants to him. In the meantime, Evditem’s son Demetriy married a Selevkien princess. Defeat delivered to Selevkians by Romans during the fight at Magnesia opened new chance for Greece-Bactrian kingdom in its quest for domains in southern territories – former allies of Selevkids. Around 187 B.C. Demetriy with inheriting father’s throne conquered Arahosia and went further to India. In 171 B.C. during Demetriy’s long absence, who was delayed in northern India, due to Bactrian power was conquered by one of his military commanders – Evkratid.
Evkratid’s kingdom was named “The Kingdom of Thousand Cities”. Chinese sources assert that in 165 B.C. yuetji came from the land between two rivers (present Syrdarya and Amudarya). They managed to conquer Bactria. In 155 AD Evkratid was killed by his son during his military campaigns. Greece-Indian kingdom has been formed during these times. During 141-129 A.D. Greece-Bactrian kingdom collapsed. Presumably, after yuetji’s conquest of Bactria King Geliokl kept power in Paropamisads or Arahosia. Two centuries of Hellenic rule world left behind a deep track in the territory of Central Asia. Sogd and Bactria became satraps (municipalities), backed up by Greek – Macedonian military command troops. New cities have been built (Herat and Merv). The Greek was a communication tool for governors and military officials. Greek standard money was issued in the area. The pantheon of Greek lords/gods, Greek literature and Greek theater became accessible to local elites. Synthesis of local and Greek tradition has occurred
Chinese historian Si Ma-tsyan in his chronicle writes about nomadic state of Kangyuy or Kadzyuy and Kangha, wh ere “traditions were similar to those of yuetji”. Ancient authors do not mention about State of Kangha, but it was told in Avesto and Mahabharat, mentioned as Saks, Tohars and Kanghs. Later Chinese chronicles maintained that Kangyuy occupied the entire territory to the north of Amudarya: Bukhara, Shakhrisabz, Kattakurgan region, Tashkent oasis, wh ere governors of Kangyuy were called “Chao-vu”. Probably, “jabru” is the Chinese transcription for “Chao-vu”. The second half of 2 century BC and 1 century AD are the period when the state of Kangyuy has seen its peak. The short-lived crisis in Kangyuy, when southern hegemony belonged to yuetji and northeastern part to Hun, Kangyuy re-established its power with the help of weak yuetji government in Bactria. In 2-1 BC Kangyuy issued the currency exchange. The Greek-Bactrian currency types were selected for the issue, as an example.
Recovery from the territory of Khorezm, particularly at right side of Janbas-Kala, testifies about the level of material culture. The castle with a 200×170 m size is a 10-11 m high, and was built from the silver bricks. There is a wide street inside. At the end of street there are remains of buildings, community fire in the oval metal altar. There were many religious beliefs during Kangyuy era: Zoroastrianism, Anahita cult, Mitra cult – embodied on the horse. One of the great achievements of the period in the military field, which was related to the Kangyuy cult was the tactics that later were widespread. They were the metal worn riders on metal covered horses in a tightly lined fight. There is little information on the later history of state of Kangyuy. It is uncertain, whether it was included into Kushan state later. According to Chinese sources, from the beginning AD Kangyuy safekept its independence and conquered yantsay (aorsi-alans) and other tribes (areas).
Invasion of yuetji in middle 2nd century BC. Initial possessions of yuetji was in the north of Bactria (in the south of modern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan). Kushan Kingdom emerged in the first half or in the middle of the 1st century AD, as a result of rising of yuetji the Kingdom of Kushan, which corresponds with the name of yuetji tribe. Founder of the kingdom was Kudzula Kadviz I, under whom Kushans conquered the largest part of now Afghanistan and Pakistan. Under his successor, Vina Tok, the considerable part of India was annexed to the territory of Kushan.
In Kanishka’s time Kushan Kingdom has seen its highest rise (78-123 AD) The capital has been transferred from Bactria to Peshavar, that stretched the territory to India and Hotan. In Central Asia the northern part of Kushan ownership passed through Ghyssar Mountain Range, in the south of Uzbekistan, wh ere huge borderline walls were erected. New cities were built with trade relations established with India, China, and Roman Empire. Kushan coins and figures made of bones, made by Kushan masters, were discovered during excavations in Pompeii. The architecture reached its highest level of development in Kushan Kingdom. Particular attention has been paid in construction of palaces and temples. The high artistic work in wall painting and sculptures in the palace of governor’s in Halchayan and Buddhist temple in old Termez and Dalvarzintepa are still preserved. The archaeologists revealed bronze vessel, graceful candlesticks, morrows, fine jewelry products by brilliant Kushan masters, concerning high masters of Kushan craftsman. The main economy of Kushan was land irrigation. Fertilizers were used in a bid to increase the harvest of crops.
The cattle breeding evolved in foothills and steppes. The excavations in ancient Termez also revealed inscription in Aramaic writing. Kushan Italic letters characterized in combination with acute-angled, quadrate and rounded form of letters that were wide spread. In Kanishka’s time the Kushan Kingdom accepted the religion of Buddhism, which later remained as a main state religion of Kushans.
However, simultaneously existed Zoroastrianism and also local Central Asian minor beliefs. In the third century the Kushan Empire began to face its gradual downfall and suffered a number of defeats from the Sassanid monarchies. By the fourth century, the empire no longer existed.
The state of the Ephtalites came into being on the territory of the Kushan Empire after its decline. The majority of the population engaged in agriculture. The rest led a nomadic mode of life. The sources reveal information about the E. since 457 AD when their ruler Vahshunvar conquered Chaganian, Toharistan and Badahshan. The Sasanide king Peroz feared the growing expansion of the Ephtalites and started campaigns against them but was captured and appealed to Byzantium for help stating that nomadic invasions would be a threaten to it too. As a result, Peroz was set free for a ransom granted by the Byzantine emperor. Peroz promised the E. to give a frontier town Talkan but didn’t keep to his promise and launched his second campaign, which also ended in a failure.
Abandoning his small son with the Ephtalites as a hostage he had paid a large tribute. In 484 Pervoz organized another campaign. This time he and his troops were tracked by the Ephtalites and fell dead. After crushing Peroz completely, the Ephtalites burdened Iran with a heavy contributions and occupied Merv, later the Kabul Valley, Pendiap, Karashar, Kucha, Kashgar and Khotan. So, they integrated Central Asia, Eastern Iran, Northern India, Eastern Turkestan into a single powerful empire. Under Peroz’s son Kavad who spent his children by the E. court as a hostage, Iran was paying a tribute to the Ephtalites.
The Ephtalites actively participated in international trade through the Great Silk Route. They dealt with Iran, Byzantine, India, and China. The epic legends of the Ephtalites about Persian wars are contained in “Shah-name” That reflects a battle of the E. with the Turks in a story about an E. king Galferd. The academician V. Bartold supposes to see Gatferd as historical Katulf from Byzantine sources. Katulf out of spite injured to his wife by the king, escaped to Iran betraying his country to the Turks. Politically the Ephtalites created a single unified state bringing together many nations of various religious backgrounds. Zoroastrianism intertwined with local beliefs of Anahita, Sigarush, Mitra, and Buddhism.
In the middle 6th century Turkic tribes of Altai entered into alliance with neighboring tribes and established “the most powerful nomadic empire in the pre-Mongolian period”. Two brothers Tumin and Istemi read a vast state formation. While Tumin expanded his dominions in the eastern Khanate, his brother Istemi engaged himself in the West of the country with unification of tribes of the area of Seven Rivers of Eastern Turkestan. A westward expansion made him approach the dominions of Ephtalites. In 563-567 the Turks defended the Ephtalite Empire and collided with Sasanide Iran on the Amu-Darya. When the Turks and Iran had a common opponent as the Ephtalite, their relations were friendly natured.
The King Hasrov Anushirran even married a Turkic queen. After the Turks defeated the Ephtalites there arose a conflict between them and Iran. The Turk’s aspirations to own the most vital trade routes contributed to the tension in relations with Iran. The mission of Istemi to Iran on trade issues failed, and the second and last members of the mission were poisoned. Following that, the Turks launched a struggle against Iran in an alliance with Byzantium. In 568-569 the first successful mission to Constantinople led by Maniah. The mutual struggle of Byzantium and Iran diverted their attention from the Khanate, which, in its turn, promoted a flourishing growth of semi-nomadic state of Turkic Khanate the Turks made several successful raids upon China once weakened by internal conflicts and achieved a big annual silk tribute. In 588 a Turkic King Kara-churin in alliance with Byzantium and Hazars, attacked Iran but was defeated and killed by a Sasanide General Bahram-Chubin. This defeat served as an impetus for the true fall of the Khanate and its disintegration in the 80s of sixth century AD into eastern and western parts. In the first half of the 7th century AD the Western Khanate saw its rise. There was an up growth. Its frontiers reached the banks of the Ind River. The trade links with China and Iran prospered. The caravan route along Merr-Chardjuy-Buhara-Samarkand-Chach flourished.
In the 4th-8th century Sogdians were the main intermediaries in the trade of the Far East, Central Asia and the Middle East, and in fact, organized, regular international caravan trade throughout the Great Silk Road. Sogd at this time was a community principalities and free cities, among which are Samarkand, Maymurg, Kesh, Nahsheb, Ishtihan, Bukhara, Amul and Andhoi. On the whole route of the Great Silk Road from to Central Asia Sogdian colonies were settled, which lasted until the 12th century. The major Sogdian colonies in Turkestan and China existed in cities such as Heap, Chang’an, Lanzhou, Dunhuang, Luoyang, wh ere Sogdians lived in closed communities. Only in Dunhuang in the 4th century Sogdian community numbered about 1,000 people.
Eastern gate of Samarkand was called “Chinese.” International trade operations were controlled by the rich Sogdian families from Samarkand, Paikend etc. They recovered loans through their agents led trade transactions. In the history of the Tang it was said that in Sogd “newly born boys had their tongues smeared with honey, and a glue was put on their arms so that they become it was tongued and gripped the coin … The man who has reached twenty years, went to neighboring lands and everywhere he visits, he sought only benefit. “Long-haul travel, contact with the craft and traditions of China, India, Iran, Turkey formed an open culture of medieval Sogd – its unique synthesis of achievements of the West and the East. The need for security of trade routes and centers of Sogdian crafts – Samarkand Pendjikent, Paikend, Bukhara and Varakhsha – defined political orientation of an alliance with the powerful state formations.
In the 6th century Sogd was included into Eftalits State, and later – in Turk Empire, from 630 recognizes the supremacy of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. In the heyday of Kaganate Sogdians were able to trade silk obtained by Turks as a tribute to China. In the 70 years of the 6th century on behalf of Turkic rulers Sogdian merchant Maniah negotiating safeguards Shahinshah trade with Iran first, and then with the Byzantine emperor. In the Middle Ages the Sogdian language became the main language on the Silk Road. Buddhists, Christians, Manichaeans transferred their religious texts in Sogdian language, using his written tradition: Indian alphabet – Buddhists, Aramaic font – the Manichaean original joint letter from Christian Syrians, religious Nestorians and Jacobites alphabets. However, they could not dislodge itself Sogdian writing based on the Aramaic text later acquired by Uighurs. The samples of this writing can be found on “old pal” of the colony in Dunhuang and documents found on the mountain in the valley of Zarafshan Moog mountain. In the early 8th century Sogd was defeated by Muslim forces of Kuteyba ibn Muslim and obeys remaining powerful trade and craft center in the geopolitical space of Islam.
In 7th century after tough inter-tribal wars a town of Medina became the center of unity of Arab tribes. In no time the leaders of nomadic tribes united their forces and focused their attention on conquering of neighboring oases and cities. Victory after victory, Syria, Palestine and Iran were quickly invaded, by 651 the Arabs were already by Merv which was later taken over with no resistance. The main reason behind Arab victories was not their military superiority but rather the weakness of states conquered. The first Arab to cross the Amudarya was Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad who was sent by Caliph Muaviya in 674. He besieged and conquered Paykent, beat rulers of Bukhara in a fierce battle as a result of which Bukhara was plundered by Arabs leaving many people homeless and turned to slaves. The governors of neighboring Sogd, Kesh, Nasaf united to help Bukhara against invaders but, as Narshahi wrote, Sogd soldiers were so impressed by the size and power of Arab army as to flee the battlefield.
Another Arab historian Belazuri wrote that all people who participated in resistance against Arabs and survived in Bukhara were turned to slaves. Freedom loving people of Bukhara could not resign themselves to Arab rule. They attacked the castle of Seid ibn Osman and killed him. In 704 Kutaiba ibn Muslim was appointed as a governor of Khorasan, who has led the all-out invasion of Maveraunnakhr, that is all the land on the right bank of Amudarya. While in 705-706 he conquered Balh, Paykent. He met strong resistance by Sogdians and Turks led by Bagdice Nizak Tarhan who has managed to make Arabs to retreat. The year 709 was the turning point for the Arab conquest. The much-acclaimed Tarhan was killed and Bukhara was again taken without much fight. Soon after Shoumen, Nasaf and Kesh were also brought to control.
Arabs were moving in closer to the heart of Sogd -Samarkand and it seemed that Samarkand would be the next target on Kutaiba’s agenda diverting much of the forces and delayed the fall of Samarkand for two more years. In 711 Kutaiba restored the ruler of Khorezm to power thus making him vassal of Caliphate. The siege of Samarkand began in 712. The governor of Samarkand Gurek was able to deliver Arabs much pain and inflict considerable damage. Despite all these effort the city of Samarkand fell under Arab control thanks to the wall-destroying equipment. After much resistance the world famous city was conquered. A huge levy was imposed on the people of the city. Meanwhile, Kutaiba continued with his mission and took Khojent, Ferghana, Shash. In 715 after the death of Caliph Walid, his own soldiers killed Kutaiba when he attempted a plot against the new Caliph.
In early ninth century Asad ibn Saman with his sons stood out among many local dynasties and increased his influence by helping Arabs to clamp down on rebels led by Rofe ibn Lays. Their forefather Saman came from one of the rich families of Ferghana. In return for their service under the orders of Caliph al- Mahmur governor of Horasan Gassan ibn Abbas appointed the sons of Asad as governors of important cities. Nuh was given Samarkand, Ahmad – Ferghana, Yahya-Shash and Usturshona, Ilyas -Herat. The head of family was Nuh, after his death – Ahmed ibn Asad. During Ahmed’s rule Samanids gained full autonomy from the Arab Caliphate and Tahirids -another local dynasty. Ahmed united all the cities and territories under his brothers’ control and formed a big state. His son Nasr, who ruled Samarkand, continued Ahmed’s policy of self-rule. In recognition of Nasr’s independence the Caliph Mutadim accepted Nasr’s sovereignty over Maveraunnakhr with the capital in Samarkand. In 892 Ismail – Nasr’s brother, became the Amir of Maveraunnakhr.
He was given Bukhara in 874. In the year 900 Ismail won a decisive battle against Saffarids (another local dynasty). Later Khorasan, Seyistan were incorporated into Samanids state. Till 999 Khorasan was retained under Samanids rule. His son Ahmed (907-914) succeeded Ismail. During the reign of Nasr II (914-943) the teachings of Karmad spread all over the country against which Nuh II (943-954) fought aggressively. During Samanids’ reign in Maveraunnakhr the handcraft and culture prospered. Many majestic buildings were erected. International trade became important. The Great Silk Road was revived and many cities were reconstructed. New weaving centers, pottery and carpentry centers developed. Inside the cities ever-present caravansaries, madrasah and mosques were built. The great scholars al-Khorezmi, Al-Ferghani, Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Beruni,Narshahi and many others also lived during that time. During the reign of Mansoor and Nuh (954-964) the state slowly but surely weakened. In 999 Karakhanids wrested away all the power from Samanids. The Samanids dynasty ceased to control Maveraunnakhr. The last representative of the dynasty Al-Muntasir was assassinated in1005.
In the late 10th century on the territory of Eastern Turkestan and the Central Asian region the State of Karakhanids (kara – nation, Karakhan – the ruler of the people ) has emerged. It was headed by “padishah Yagma” or “ilekhan”. It consisted of various Turkic tribes – Karluk, Chigils, Argu, Yagma and others, which already accepted Islam. In 992 Karakhanid troops headed by ilekhan Bogra invaded Transoxiana. The secret alliance concluded between Bogra Khan with Samanid governor of Khorasan Abu Ali Simdzhur and betrayal Foika military chief contributed to the success of Karakhanids. As a result, almost without a fight Karakhanids captured Bukhara and Emir Nuh II had fled to Chardjuy. However Bogra Khan became ill and died on the way home to Kashgar. Karakhanids returned from Maverannahr with rich booty. Ilekhan Nasr became the new head of Karakhanids, who resumed the offensive in Bukhara.
In 999 Karahanids again captured Bukhara and Emir Abd – al-Malik II and the entire royal family fell into captivity. It finally settled the question of power in Transoxiana in favor of Karakhanids. Karakhanid government seized land from Kashgar to the Amu Darya River and includes part of East Turkestan, the Seven Rivers, Shash, Ferghana and the land of ancient Sogdiana. Up until 1005 the last Samanid al-Muntasir successfully fought with Karahanid, but their superior forces last secured victory. With the blessing of the Baghdad Caliph Ali ibn Nasr ilekhan asserted his authority over Mawarannahr. Karakhanids destroyed the class of farmers and their land and water were transferred to the state and in the form of “ikty” heard military commanders and the clergy. After the death of ilekhan Nasr in 1012 he was succeeded by his brother Ali Tegin. Karakhanids were in constant war with the neighboring country Ghaznavid for the territory and in the late 11th century were a vassal of the exalted state Seljuks. Capital of ilekhan was initially in Uzgen, and then was moved to Samarkand. Bukhara and Samarkand also obeyed them. Karakhanid khans built a lot in Samarkand, Bukhara, Binkent, built palaces, mosques and madrassas, maintained and strengthened the authority of the Muslim clergy.
In the 11th and the first half of the 12th century Khorezm became a part of the Seljuk (formed in the 11th century on the ruins of the Ghaznavid state). Rise of Khorezm in the 11th century is closely associated with the policy of the Turkish Khorezmshahs dynasty dates back to Anush tegin – last dignitary Seljuk emir. We know about him that he had a distinguished career at the court of Malik Shah (1072-1092). The competence of this department was to control Khorezm. Clear tendency to become an independent state in the Khorezm was demonstrated by Atsyz – the grandson of Anush tegin, which already worn the revived title of Khoresmshah. Khorezmshah Atsyz (1127-1156) successfully fought against the Seljuk sultan Sandzhar. Talented diplomat and decisive military leader, he began to pursue an independent foreign policy. So, without the permission of his suzerain Sanjar, he started a war with the Kipchaks and Turkmen.
In the early 12th century the new conquerors Kara-China came from the east. Seljuk Sultan Sanjar came to the aid of Samarkand Karakhanid Mahmoud Khan, who was his closest relative. Battle of Samarkand with Kara – China ended in total defeat of Sanjar. Khorezmshah Atsyz immediately took advantage of the defeat of Sanjar and in winter of 1141 conquered and destroyed Merv, and in 1142 was already close to Nishapur. In 1156 Atsyz dies, and his son Il-Arslan continued to strengthen the Khorezm state. He conquers Dihistan. His son Tekesh (1172-1200) captures Nishapur in 1187, Merv – in 1192, and inflicts a decisive defeat to Western Seljuk Sultan in 1194. As a result the entire eastern Iran goes into his hands.
In 1195 Tekesh troops defeated Abbasid caliph, and Khorezm troops enter Iraq as the sole masters. Khorezmshakh Tekesh needs to be recognized as the most talented ruler of Khorezm, who managed to double the area and create a powerful state. The weak point of his policy was the protection exerted to Kipchak military aristocracy, which strives to influence public affairs. Willful interference of Turkic “generals” into the affairs of state subsequently significantly contributed to the fall of the Khorezm state during the reign of the Tekesh’s son Kharizmshah Muhammed.
In 1215 Genghis Khan, having consolidated the successes in northern China, draws his interests to the West. In 1219 he instructs Chepe Noyon to march on Eastern Turkestan and the Seven Rivers region. Defeating Kuchluk state Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana. Khorezmshah Muhammad gave the order to strengthen the city. To fortify Samarkand a large sum of money was raised, but it was spent wrongly, and the walls were not reinforced. In 1219 Genghis Khan moved to Otrar – big and strong fortress. Dividing his forces, he left one part for Otrar siege, and another led by his son Juchi was sent to capture Signak, Uzgen, Jenda, and then Urgench. Squad in 5000 people had been sent up to the Syrdarya, and cities of Khujand and Benaket. Genghis Khan himself with the main forces marched the shortest way through the arid steppe towards Bukhara. In February 1220 Bukhara was taken. The city was given by Genghis Khan his soldiers to plunder. The news of the terrible fate of Bukhara quickly spread in Maverannakhr. Population was in fear and panic. Khorezmshah Muhammad cowardly didn’t react and was ready to run.
After Bukhara the Mongols went to Samarkand. The chief of the garrison of Samarkand was Turk Tugay Khan, who surrendered the city, hoping to go into the service of Genghis Khan. Mongols entered the city and committed a massacre. Only a quarter of the population of Samarkand had survived. In April 1220 the Mongols took Jend. In the upper reaches of the Syrdarya they took Benaket. Khujand’s ruler Timur Malik courageously resisted the Mongols. With a small detachment he managed to reach a fighting Urgench. Before summer 1220 eastern and central part of Transoxiana were captured by the Mongols. Khorezmshah fled. He died on the island off the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. In Urgench Timur Malik briefly headed the army and militia. He successfully fought Juchi. In the autumn of 1220 Genghis Khan stormed Termez. In winter 1221 the siege of Urgench began. Residents put up a heroic resistance. Even before the fall of Urgench Balkh and Merv were taken. By the summer of 1221 the entire territory of Central Asia belonged to the Mongols. After the death of Genghis Khan the region was recognized as ulus of Genghis Khan’s son – Chagatai. Collection of taxes in favor of the Chagatai house was entrusted to local tax collector Mahmoud Yalavach.
In the middle of the 14th century, Temur – the son of barlass bek Taragai began his political activity in Maveranahr. Together with the ruler of Samarkand Emir Hussein – the grandson of influential Turkic Kazagan, Amir Temur began fighting for the unification of Maveranahr and liberation from the Mongol rule. Later, their relationship deteriorated. In 1370 Amir Temur defeated the army of Hussein and was proclaimed as the Amir of Maveranahr.
During the 1372-1388 Amir Temur makes five military marches to Khorezm, achieving its full submission. After that, he begins his military campaigns in Iran, Iraq, the Caucasus, Syria and Turkey. The result was a creation of a vast empire. However, Temur was constantly threatened by the might of the Golden Horde and the White Horde, who were part of the Juchi Ulus.
In 1379, Amir Temur promotes Tokhtamish ascension to the throne of the White Horde. However, after defeating Mamay in 1380 Tokhtamish captures the supreme power in the Golden Horde and begins expansion into possessions of Temur. In response, the Amir Temur inflicts serious losses to Tokhtamish in battles at Kunduzchi in 1391 and 1395 in the valley of the Terek River in the North Caucasus. After this Tokhtamish was so weakened that Temur had a road opened to the capital of the Golden Horde – Sarai Berke. The city was captured, looted and burned.
In 1398-1399 there was a famous Indian campaign, which resulted in a huge bounty. In 1400 Amir Temur joined the fight against the Ottoman Sultan Bayazid 1 and the Egyptian Sultan Faraj. In 1402 the Ottoman Sultan’s Ankara was completely defeated, which for 50 years has delayed the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks. At the end of 1404 Temur headed the 200-thousand army on a march to China. However, the death of Timur in February 18, 1405 in Otrar ceased the campaign.
The reign of Amir Temur was a time of intensive development of the economy, trade and culture. Maveranahr became a part of a vast empire. 14-15 century – the time of the “Timurid renaissance” – often referred to in the history of Central Asia as a “golden age”. This century has given the world ‘s greatest scientists, poets and genius artists. Isfahani in the “Book of Bukhara guest” tells about the development and production of cotton in Samarkand cotton and silk fabrics. Temur considered that the world is made comfortable by merchants and spend a lot on new roads, shopping facilities. During his reign economic and political ties with the countries of the Middle East and the West were widened, as well as with the distant countries of Europe: Spain, France and England.
During five years after Amir Temur’s death the long dynastic war took place in Maveraunnakhr. In 1409 Temur’s son Shahrukh (1376-1447) gained an upper hand over his brother Miranshakh’s son Halil-Sultan and became the head of united state of the Temur Dynasty. But, in fact, it had already consisted of two states. Shahrukh ruled in Horasan with its center in Herat, and Shahrukh’s son Mirzo Ulugbek (1394-1449) governed Maveraunnakhr. Both states consisted of small fiefdoms governed by Temur descendants. Many of them aspired “for the larger portion of the cake” pretended on the larger part. Shahrukhs grandson, Sultan-Muhammad, who was appointed to rule Iran, began to demonstrate such level of independence that Shahrukh had to establish the order with the help of his army. Ulugbek was conducting an independent external policy. He was alertly following the situation in the Lower Syrdarya, from wh ere the Uzbeks of Dashti-Kipchak were raging attacks at Khorezm.
In 1419 he supported Barak and helped him to become the Khan of the nomadic Uzbeks. In Mongolia after long discords Shirmuhammad secured victory, but he made it with the help of Mirzo Ulugbek. But soon Ulugbek had to struggle with his protegees (those who were appointed by him). In 1425 Ulugbek crashed the Moguls. In 1427 after the relations with Barak had been spoiled, Ulugbek went to Lower Syrdarya and was defeated. After Shakhrukhs’s death in 1447 Ulugbek made an attempt to conquer Herat and Horasan, but failed. In 1448 Ulugbek with his son Abdullatif tried again to conquer Herat, and this time being the successful. However, he couldn’t conquer Horasan because of the riot of rulers of Horasan and incursions of nomadic Uzbeks led by Abulkhairkhan to Maveraunnakhr. In 1449 Abdullatif got to intrigue against his father, which has ended with Ulugbek’s death. Abdullatif became the ruler, but he was killed in May 1450. Abdulla, who did try to revive Ulugbek’s policy, took the power.
In counterweight to Abdulla, who was supported by Turks, the Emirs of Bukhara, supported by Nakshbandiya movement by Hoja Akhror, promoted their own claimant to the throne. It was Abu-Sayid (1451-1468), Miranshakh’s grandchild, who was the son of Amir Temur. Abu-Sayid attracted at his side the khan of nomadic Uzbeks – Abulhair. In the summer of 1451 not far from Samarkand the great battle occurred. The nomadic Uzbeks won, Abdulla was killed. Abu-Sayid seized power over Samarkand and Maveraunnakhr. Hoja Akhror became his closest counselor. Abu-Sayid failed in securing Horasan, because Abul-Kasim Bobur had possessed the throne of Herat since 1452 till 1457. Relations between two governors were hostile. In 1457 Abu-Sayid seized the throne of Herat, temporarily uniting two states. But another Temur descendant – Sultan Husein Boikaro, Omar-sheikh’s great-grandson, who was the son of Amir Temur – tried to gain power in Herat.
In 1468 Abu-Sayid went to conquer Iran and didn’t come back. Sultan Husein (1469-1506) used the situation and seized the power. Abu-Sayid’s sons declined from struggle for the throne and went to Maveraunnakhr. In the second half of the 15th century there was the period of political split in Maveraunnakhr. From 1469 to 1494 Sultan Ahmed, Abu-Sayid’s son, ruled in Samarkand (the power in fact was in the hands of Hoja Akhror and Nakshbandiya religious teaching), Sultan Ali-mirza – in Bukhara, Zakhiriddin Muhammad Bobur – in Ferghana. It was Bobur who made the fierce resistance against the invasion of nomadic Uzbeks led by Sheibany-khan. In 1497 the Andijan army headed by Bobur took over Samarkand. In spring 1501 Bobur failed in battle with Sheibany-khan on the Kuhak River. Bobur had to go to Kabul. From 1501 till 1506 Sheibany-khan conquered Samarkand, Tashkent, Kyat and Buldumsaz, Urgench, and Balh. Meanwhile, weak Sultan-Husein couldn’t make a serious resistance against Sheibany-khan. Only after Sheibany-khan had seized Horezm, Sultan-Husein decided to set out, but soon he died. In Herat his sons Badi az-Zamin and Muzaffar Husein – wh ere appointed as successors. The discord between them only accelerated the fall of Herat. In 1507 Sheibany-khan conquered Herat.
Sheibanids made Samarkand their state capital. During the reign of Ubaidullah Khan (1533-1539), despite the difficult military and political situation, big attention was paid to the development of science and culture. Ubaidullah Khan was a very educated man, masterfully recited Quran and provided his comments in the Turkic language, was a gifted singer and musician. Abdullah Khan II (1557-1598) attempted to create a single powerful state. In 1557 he took possession of Bukhara, which after 1561 became the capital, and the state became known as the Bukhara khanate. During his reign, the construction took the broadest scope. Bridge across the river in Kermine Zarafshan, as well as numerous madrasas in Balkh and Bukhara were built. Khan built the whole ensemble – a mosque, madrasa, a house and other buildings around the mausoleum of Imam Abubakr Sa’d.
After the death of Abdullah Khan in 1598 hope for a united state Uzbeks collapsed. The last representative of the Sheibanids dynasty Pirmuhammad was pretty ordinary person and did not have the political influence of specific rulers. Unable to cope with the ensuing anarchy, he soon died in the internecine struggle. Lack of central authority in the country and reigned confusion immediately took advantage of the internal and external enemies of the Bukhara Khanate. In the south of the Iranian Shah Abbas captured Sebzevar, Mashhad and Herat. In Balkh, he planted his protege Muhammad Ibrahim. Kazakh sultans captured one of the major principalities – Tashkent. Khorezm regained independence. “Across the country turmoil and anarchy began, no one wanted to submit another ” – wrote about those years Munshi Muhammad Yusuf. As a result of internecine strife and wars three khanates of Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand were formed.
In 1505 the troops Sheibani Khan captured Khorezm. However, in 1512 the Khan’s power passed into the hands of Ilbars Khan, the leader of the other branch of nomadic Uzbeks. From that time on, the Khanate of Khiva, the capital of which at various times were Wazir, Old Urgench, Khiva. Into the Khanate, besides Khorezm oasis entered Mangishlak, areas Balkhan mountains, Dehistan, Uzboi and Middle Khorasan. In the struggle for hegemony in Central Asia with Bukhara khanate Khiva troops devastated Karakul Chardjuy, Vardanzi and got to Kermine. In 1662, the Khan of Khiva Abulgazi after a raid made peace with the Khan of Bukhara Abulaziz. However, attacks on Bukhara continued under his son Anusha Khan (1663-1687).
In 1685 Khivans managed to capture Samarkand. However, near to Gijduvon Anusha Khan was defeated and was forced to leave Samarkand. Soon Bukhara’s Khan conspired against Anusha Khan, which was the son of Anush Irnak (Ereng) . In 1687 Anusha was captured and blinded. In 1688 Shah Niaz khan sought to strengthen the power and get rid of dependence on Bukhara.
In 1700 he secretly sent an ambassador from Bukhara to Peter 1 to accept him “with all the people subservient to him” into the Russian citizenship. Apparently Khan Arab Muhammad (1702-1714) also relied on Russia’s support. During the reign of Shirgazi Khan (1715-1728) internal turmoil tore apart the feudal state. In 1717 Khiva khanate successfully repel the invasion of the Russian state military expedition led by A.Bekovich – Cherkassky. After that Ilbars became Shirgazi Khan (1728-1740). Using lack of Nadir Shah, who at that time undertook a campaign in Afghanistan and India, Ilbars raided Khorasan. This, and the failure of Khiva acknowledge their dependence on Iran and its military support of Bukhara, led by Nadir Shah to undertake a campaign to Khorezm.
In the battle of Khazarasp Ilbars was defeated. Iranian forces had taken Hanka and Ilbars himself was killed in battle. After a four-day siege, Nadir Shah took the capital. A considerable part of Khiva was attached to the army troops of Nadir Shah. In Khiva Nadir Shah left a garrison and a ruler. However, the northern part of the Khanate did not obey to Iran. Nurali – Abul- Khair son, Khan of Small Kazakh ulus emerged on the arena and in 1730-1732 received Russian citizenship. In 1741 Khivans rebelled against Iran. Khiva was taken by the rebels, the governor and the garrison massacred. Nurali took the imperial throne. Nadir Shah, having heard about these events, gives the order to his son Nasrullah Mirza to retake Khorezm. Khiva dignitaries who contributed to the the rise of Nurali to the throne, hastened to Merv acknowledging their guilt. At their request, Nadir Khan appointed Abu Muhammad, son of Ilbars as the Khan of Khiva. Nurali fled to the steppe. During the 40’s of the 18th century Khiva changed several khans.
After the death of Rahim Mangyts brought to the place the ruler Miankal Daniar bey (1758-1785). However, he failed to maintain a rigid central authority. The civil strife and conflicts between supporters and opponents of Mangits dragged on for several decades. In 1784 dissatisfied with the weakness of Daniar the citizens of Bukhara revolted and Daniyarbiy ceded power to his son Shahmurad (1785-1800). Shahmurad innovations started with the fact that eliminated two major dignitaries – Dawlat kushbegi and Nizamuddin kazikalon, killing them in front of the Arch. Shahmurad then solemnly handed residents of Bukhara Tarhan letter, frees them from some taxes. Text ratification was carved in stone, attached to Yvan large mosque. Instead, he established a new tax “Jul” for the maintenance of troops in case of war. Concentrating power in his hands, he refused to take khan title, remaining as emir.
He put Danishmandchu first and then Abulgazi – descendants of Genghis Khan to the throne and they had no real power. In 1785 Shahmurad held monetary reform, starting to produce high-grade silver coins 0.7 mithqala (3.36 g), as well as standardized gold coins. He personally led the legal department. Shahmurad returned the left bank of the Amu Darya from Balkh and Merv to Bukhara Emirate. In 1786 he suppressed a revolt in the county Kermine then made successful campaigns in Shakhrisyabz and Khujand. Shahmurad successfully fought with the Afghan ruler Timur Shah, managing to retain the region of the southern Turkestan inhabited by Uzbeks and Tajiks. When Emir Haidar (1800-1826) received the throne from his father, the entire Maveranahr obeyed his authority. Accession to the throne was accompanied by Haidar strife and mass uprisings. In 1800 Merv Turkmens rebelled. Soon a war with Kokand Uratyube that Haidar managed to defend began.
During Emir Haidar political system was a centralized monarchy, evolving towards absolutism. Emir Haidar had bureaucracy of up to four thousand people. Increased the army. Only in Bukhara, there were 12,000 troops. Ahmad Danisch reports that “the reign of Emir Haidar can be characterized as a time of incessant feudal wars that occurred every 3-6 months”. Haidar succeeded by his son, Nasrullah (1826-1860). To clear the way to power for him, his older brothers Hussein and Umar were killed. Relying on the army and the alliance with the clergy, Nasrullah led a fierce struggle against feudal fragmentation, seeking to curb the nobility. During the first month of reign he executed daily 50-100 people. He worked for the unification of regions, nominally belonged to the emirate. For the administration of provinces, he drew “unknown” people that obeyed him completely. The reign of Nasrallah was accompanied by incessant wars with Khiva and Kokand khanate for certain border areas – Merv, Chardjuy, Uratyube, Khujand. Stubborn resistance was done by Shahrisabz and Kitab rulers. Only in 1853 after repeated military campaigns, they were subject to Bukhara.
Fergana became separate from Bukhara in the early 18th century under conditions of political instability in Ashtarkhanid Khanate. There was founded an independent state with the center in Kokand, wh ere firstly came to power hodzhas, and then khan dynasty Ming. Khanate included the territories of Namangan, Kokand, Andijan and Margilan regions. Shahrukhbiy from Uzbek tribe Ming was proclaimed as the first ruler of the Khanate. In the 1721-1722 years Shahrukh was killed as a result of strife between emirs. His son Abdurahimbiy (1721-1733) became his successor. He joined Khanate Andijan and Khojand, and also Samarkand, Kattakurgan, Dzhizak, the regions belonged to Bukhara Khanate at that time. Osh was conquered by Khanate during the period of his brother Abdukarimbiy’s ruling (1733-1748).
Following twenty years were marked by frequent changes of rulers. In 1770 Narbuta (1770-1800) was proclaimed as a ruler by Kokand nobility. He has succeeded to stifle rebellion of Chust, Khodjant and Namangan rulers. Narbutabiy send troops to Tashkent, but failed to conquer the city. Under Narbutabiy in the Khanate reigned relative political stability that positively affected to economic development. The irrigation system was expanded and many new madrassas were built, including Mir madrasa. Narbuta succeeded by his son Alimbek (1800-1809), under whom the political importance of Kokand has risen significantly. The state was officially declared as the Khanate of Kokand in 1805 and Alimbek was given the title of «Khan». He created a mercenary army, made up of mountain Tajiks, which became his mainstay in the struggle to centralize power. Alimkhan subordinated Tashkent and Fergana, made a number of military campaigns on Uratyuba. As a result of a plot he was killed and his brother Omarkhan (1809-1822) came to throne.
He signed a treaty with Bukharian emir Haydar and joined to the Khanate Kazakh land up to the Syrdarya River mouth. Omarkhan built Akmachit fortress at the crossroads of the Tashkent, Bukhara and Khiva roads. Omarkhan had the title of «Faithful lord» – «Amir ul-Muslimin», minted coins in his name. Under him the administrative system of Bukhara Khanate was taken as administrative system of the Khanate. Omarkhan’s successor was his 12 – year-old son Muhammad Alikhan (Madalihan) (1822-1842). He was young, and his mother prominent poetess Nodirabegim ruled the state in his youth years, who made significant contribution to the development of culture and art in Kokand.
Madalikhan made a number of successful campaigns to East Turkistan and Kashgar to subordinate Tadjiks who lived in the mountainous areas of Alay ridge. During his reign an advanced irrigational system was established in the Khanate, and the foreign trade communications have strengthened. Flatterers called him «gazi» (The Fighter for Belief), however the clergy determined him as an apostate. Khan’s opponents sent their complaint to Emir of Bukhara Nasrulla. In 1840 Emir send his ambassador to Kokand with Fetva, in which Madalikhan admitted as «Kafir» (Infidel). Having failed in the battle with armies of Emir Nasrulla, Madalikhan recognized himself as the Vassal of Bukhara and was compelled to concede Hodjent. But, after that, relations between Bukhara and Kokand continued worsening. As a result, in 1841 Muhammad Alikhan refused the throne for the benefit of his brother Sultan Mahmudkhan. Then, in 1842 emir Nasrulla hold Kokand once again. By Emir’sorder Madalikhan, his brother Sultan Mahmudhan and his mother Nodirabegim, and also a number of high-ranking officials were executed. Under decree of Nasrulla his deputy began to rule in Khanate that imposed heavy tax burden on people. As a result, in summer of 1842 in the Khanate began a rebellion, during which all supporters of Emir were killed, and the nephew of Norbutabij – Sherali was put forward as Khan. Emir of Bukhara Nasrulla held Kokand again. But after 40 days, after having been informed that the Khan of Khiva Ollokulihon invaded to the territory of Emirate he had to raise the siege and returned back.
Under Sheralihan (1842-1845) Musulmankul (from Kipchak tribe), who help him to come to power, was appointed as Mingbashi (the commander of forces). Musulmankul, in his turn, filled the majority of fighting corpuses with his fellow tribesmen. Having the influence among soldiers, he tried to exert influence on ruler, but Sheralikhan did not allow it.
Not having achieved his purpose, in 1845 Musulmankul organized an attempt at Khan when the Khan was on the way to Osh to suppress the rebellion that had flashed because of a discontent for imposed taxes. After the assassination of Sheralihan, Alimkhan`s son – Murad sat on the throne. In order to keep his position, he had to recognize himself as the vassal of the Emir of Bukhara. Then Musulmonkul eliminated him and put on the throne Sheralikhan’s son – Hudoyor marrying him to his daughter.
Making use of Khan’s adolescence, Musulmankul actually gathered all power in his hands. In particular, he distributed the majority of high-ranking posts to the representatives of kipchaks. Because of it, the discontent was increased in Kokand and Musulmankul was discharged off his post.
Having decided to return his influence, Musulmankul secretly tried to establish contact with V.V.Velyaminov-Zernov, the representative of Russian army command forces. In order to get rid of kipchaks, Kokand nobility tried to win over Hudoyorkhan. In 1853 began mass kipchak slaughter in Kokand, and Musulmonkul was taken in captivity and then executed.
But internal struggle for the throne did not stop. The people once assisted Hudoyorkhan to eliminate Musulmankul, joined in a conspiracy against him. Those were unsuccessful attempts. From 1852 to 1865 on the throne came several governors. In 1865 Kipchaks and Kyrgyzs declared Hudoykulbek as Khan of Kokand, who ruled the country only 14 days and run away to Kashgar with all treasury. As a result, Hudoyorhan occupied the throne of Kokand without difficulties.
Making use of internal political instability, Russia started active military operations against Khanate. As a result from 1853 to 1865 Russian army forces occupied the cities of the Khanate of Kokand – Okmasjid, Takmak, Pishpek (current Bishkek) Avliyoota, Turkistan, Chimkent and Tashkent with joining to them territories. On July 14, 1867 Emperor Alexander II founded Turkistan general – governorship that included the seized territory in Central Asia.
The territory of Kokand Khanate was noticeably reduced as a result of the Russian military expansion, which became the reason of reduction tax revenues to state treasury. In order to refill the treasury Khan increased tax burden. That decision raised public discontent, and in 1871 in Sokh began a revolt that has turned to long-term armed mutiny, and this went down in history as «Pulatkhan Revolt». Russian armies suppressed the revolt, and Pulatkhan was taken in prison and executed in March 1876 in Margilan. In the same year with Emperor’s decision the Khanate of Kokand was officially liquidated and Fergana region of the Turkestan general – governorshipwas formed in its territory.
Since the 20s of the 19th century British goods began to compete with Russian goods in Central Asia. UK openly declared its claim to the presence in Afghanistan, Iran and Central Asia. To strengthen its position in the Asian markets, Russia is creating favorable conditions for the export customs for Russian goods.
Under Nicholas I the diplomatic and military presence of Tsarist Russia in the region was activated. In 1834 the Novo-Aleksandrovskoe fortress (Mangishlak) was built on the way to the Uzbek khanates. In late 1839 and early 1840 the Governor-General of Orenburg graf Perovskiy made a bad winter military campaign against Khiva. In 1847 General Oruchev took the northeastern coast of the Aral Sea and founded fortress Raim (Kazalinsk). Aral flotilla was created, consisting of the steamers “Nicholas” and “Constantine”. In 1850-1855 Russian troops captured Kokand fortresses Kumushkurgan, Chimkurgan, Kushkurgan, Ak-Mosque (Kyzyl-Orda) occupied the valley of the Ili River, wh ere they established the Verniy fortress.
During the reign of Alexander II the conquest of Central Asia became the main goal of the imperial foreign policy of Russia. The reason for the marching to the south became constant raids of military units of the Kokand khanate on Russian settlements in southern Kazakhstan, the lower reaches of the Syrdarya and the coast of the Aral Sea. In 1865 Major General M.Chernyaev captured Tashkent and elders of the city forced to sign an armistice agreement. Emperor Alexander II ordered the Orenburg governor to take Tashkent residents to Russian citizenship upon their requests. Part of influential individuals, merchants from Tashkent signed such treatment. In 1866 Russian troops captured the fortress of Khujand and Namangan. Chinaz fortress was built.
In July 1867 an imperial decree has established Turkestan Military District, headed by the Governor-General. In 1868 the Turkestan Military District troops under the command of the Adjutant General von Kaufman started hostilities against the khanate of Bukhara. In May, the Russian troops came to Samarkand without a fight and went into town. In June, the Emir of Bukhara signed an armistice agreement. Zarafshan district was formed. Detachment of General Abramov captures Karshi and returns it to the Emir of Bukhara. In 1870 as a result of military operations Major General Abramov captures Shakhrisyabz and Kitab. Shakhrisyabz and Kitab were transferred to Emir of Bukhara. In 1873 offensive against the Khanate of Khiva was organized from the Turkestan, Mangishlak and Orenburg. In May the fortress Khazarasp was taken, Khiva and later the fortress Kungrat, Hodzhayli , Gurlen were captured. In August an armistice with the Khan of Khiva was signed. Russian protectorate was established over the Khanate of Khiva. Muhammad Rahim Khan Bogodur (Feruz) withheld the power. In the autumn of 1873 a new political agreement with the Bukhara khanate was signed.
In 1875-1876 as a result of military action a rebellion against Khudoyar Khan and the Russian authorities in the Fergana Valley was suppressed. Kokand khanate was liquidated and on its territory Fergana region was formed as a part of Russia. In 1881 the Akhal-Teke oasis and Ashgabat were captured. A convention on the delim itation was signed between Russia and Persia. In 1884 Merv subordinated. Kushka became the southern point of the Russian borders.
Thus, in 80s 19th century Russian borders in Central Asia were finally formed. In 1895 the Russian and British governments signed an agreement on the delim itation of the zones of influence with the definition of the dividing line in the Pamir Mountains.
In 1924 Uzbekistan as one of the republics joined the former USSR. In March 1927 the first Constitution of Uzbekistan was adopted. During this period the final role and decision – making were the priority of inter-republican management bodies for developing national economy and the culture of Central Asian republics: Central Asian Economic Council (in 1923), Central Asian water resource management, Central Asian State Planning and etc. In a short period of time hard consequences of Civil War were eliminated. The industry was developing rapidly. The great changes have been taken in engineering industry, metal – working industry and Power branches. During the period from 1928 to 1942 515 enterprises and electric power stations were launched among which are Chirchik city electrochemical plant, Tashselmash, Kuvasay city cement and lime works, Tashkent city textile industrial complex, and others. In 1925 – 1929 the land – water use reform was carried out.
The agriculture and irrigation sectors were on the rise with new canals and reservoirs being reconstructed. In the country the literacy of the population was 95% by the end of 1941. The State University of Turkestan (1920) became prominent center of higher education. There a number of scientific – research institutions were functioning which placed more than 1000 researches to the end of 20th. Tashkent was declared capital of Uzbekistan SSR in 1930. A new UzSSR Constitution was adopted in 1937. According to the Constitution the elections were held for the republican bodies of power led Yu. Akhunbabaev and Fayzulla Khojaev. The entire life in the republic went on under the increasing cult of personality of Stalin and strengthening totalitarian management methods. The mass repression of outstanding party members and statesmen. The bodies of political administration have trumped – up criminal cases regarding F.Khodjaev, A.Ikramov, D.Manjari and the others. Dozens of people, including leaders of Uzbekistan Communist Party S.Baltabaev, I.Khudaykulov, A.Tsekher, M.Shermukhamedov. M.Usmanov, and others were arrested in August – September. In spring of 1938 more than 60 percent party secretaries such as obkoms (regional party committee), gorkoms (city party committee) and raikoms (district party committee) were subjected to purges.
On June 22, 1941 Germany in violation of the non-aggression pact suddenly attacked the USSR. On June 23 many thousand demonstrations were held in Tashkent, wh ere the citizens expressed their readiness to do all their best at home for the front and for the sake of the victory. In the first months of war 32,000 requests for sending to the front battlefields were submitted. In November 1941 it 14 national brigades: 9 infantries and 5 cavalries groups were formed. In 1941 – 1943 Uzbekistan received and placed 1 million refugees, evacuated because of military operations in Russia, Ukraine and Byelorussia. Among them 200, 000 were children. War conditions required urgent measures for strengthening the home front. More than one hundred industrial enterprises were moved to Uzbekistan: Leningrad factory for textile machinery, Rostselmash, “Krasniy Aksay” Stalingrad Chemical plant, Moscow factories “Podemnik”, “Elektrostanok”, and many others. By the end of 1941 more than 50 evacuated enterprises were put into operation. In the middle of 1942 all enterprises relocated to Uzbekistan were operated in full power for supplying military machines, ammunitions and munitions. From the very beginning of war the republican industrial enterprises were reorganized for producing goods for the defense. Tashselmash, steam – locomotive repair, Chirchik city electrochemical plant and the others were few of them.
During 1941 – 1945 280 industrial enterprises were put in operation. In 1943 the specific gravity of enterprises in national economy has been taken to 75 percent. In autumn 1942 the construction of the metallurgical plant in Bekabad region has been launched. It was started the setting up of non-ferrous metallurgy on the basis of explored reserves of tungsten, molybdenum and copper. Also, the Almalyk copper ore deposit was put into operation. From 1940 till 1943 because of constructing of new electric power stations the power production increased 3, 5 times. During 1941 – 1945 there were put in operation 280 Industrial enterprises representing all branches of industry. Uzbekistan became one of the leading arsenals of the country. More than two thousands planes, 1,7 thousand aircraft engines and mortars, 22 million mines, 560 thousand shells, about millions of grenades, 330 thousand parachutes, 5 armed trains, more than 100 thousand km. of different wires were sent. There were relocated 22 scientific- research institutions, 16 institutes of higher education, 2 libraries. On November 1943 the inauguration of Academy of Science was held. T.N.Kari-Niyazov was elected as the first president. By late 1944 22 scientific institutions were the part of Academy of Science. 41 institutes of Higher education including 12 evacuated ones and 51 secondary education institutions functioned in 1943. More than 20,000 specialists were trained during the war at those institutions. About one million citizens of Uzbekistan fought in front lines. Tens of national force units were created. Many of them were awarded with orders and military rank of guardsmen. The soldiers of Uzbekistan took part in defense of Brest fortress, cities of Kiev, Smolensk, Odessa, Sevastopol, and so on. (D.Abdullaev, T.Aliev, Isaev, Yusupov, F.Laenkov, U.Ataev and other).
In post-war period there were continued the development process of diversified industries with deployed transport and power systems. The cities became a scientific and culture canters. The new Grand Academic Theater of Uzbekistan was established in 1947. A few years later the theater of opera and ballet has been opened in the city of Samarkand. The agriculture sector was mechanized. In 1984 more than 4,175 hectares of sown areas were assimilated, 2,056 thousand hectares of which were given for cotton fields. The leadership in post-war period included U.Yusupov, A.Niyazov, N.Mukhitdinov, Sh.Rashidov. During the 80s the USSR faced the political and ideological crisis. It turned out that the centrifugal forces were powerful resulting in the end of dissolution of the former Soviet Union and breaking up to newly independent states in the vast area.
Uzbekistan gained independence on August 31, 1991 in the difficult political and socio- economic conditions. For over 130 years the colonial regime domination made it impossible for the independent development of the Republic.
Declaration of independence put to the people and the country’s leadership task of fundamental reforms. As a result of internal and external policies pursued by the government led by Islam Karimov Uzbekistan has been recognized by the international community as an independent state. Within a very short time Uzbekistan has identified its own model of development.
“The Uzbek model” of development designed and implemented by the President Islam Karimov set the stage for social and economic development of the country. In a short time grain and oil independence was ensured. Uzbekistan had turned from agricultural and raw materials exporting country to rapidly growing, modern technology country. The global financial and economic crisis of 2008 has confirmed the correctness of the chosen path of Uzbekistan’s development. “Uzbek model” successfully weathered the crisis, deservedly received high positive ratings from international financial organizations and experts.
Historical experience shows that no country can develop in isolation from the world community. As a result of a balanced foreign policy of Uzbekistan has been recognized by more than 180 countries, and 130 countries have established diplomatic relations with the republic. Uzbekistan is a member of such authoritative international organizations as the UN, CIS, SCO, etc.
Today, Uzbekistan has bilateral and mutually beneficial cooperation in the economic, political and cultural spheres with most of the countries of North and South America, Europe, Middle East and Asia.
In accordance with the Constitution of Uzbekistan equality of citizens regardless of their ethnic, linguistic and religious identity is ensured. Currently the country is inhabited by over a hundred nations and nationalities, for which all the necessary conditions are created.